Amelia Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan, disappeared in 1937 during her attempt to become the first female to fly around the world. Flying near Howland Island in the Pacific, communication with her plane was lost. Finally, after an intense search by the U.S. government, she and Noonan were officially pronounced dead  on January 5, 1939. Since then, there has been speculation about whether they actually died in a crash at sea, or survived for some time on a deserted island.

Amelia Earhart disappeared in 1937. Image from Discover Magazine.

Two years ago, the International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery found bone fragments on Nikumaroro Island that may be part of Earhart’s finger. However, a dead sea turtle was found nearby, raising the reasonable possibility that the bone fragments also belong to the turtle. Apparently the bone fragments are too small to identify just by looking at them, so researchers want to extract DNA from the bone to compare to Earhart’s. How do we get DNA from her, you may ask? From National Geographic:

The new Earhart DNA project will be headed by Dongya Yang, a genetic archaeologist at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, Canada. Yang will examine Earhart’s letters and attempt to extract DNA from mouth-lining cells that would have been in the saliva she used to seal the envelopes. Mining a trove of more than 400 correspondences between Earhart and various people, the researchers have chosen four letters to family—deemed the most likely to have been written and sealed by Earhart herself—for analysis.

Yang is aiming to gather two kinds of DNA from the letters: mitochondrial DNA, which children inherit from their mothers only, and nuclear DNA, which contains the bulk of a person’s genetic information and is housed in each human cell’s nucleus. If both DNA types can be obtained, the team says it can create a genetic profile of Earhart that is complete enough to positively identify any potential remains.

If the project proceeds smoothly, Yang said, the team could have a genetic profile for Earhart in “a couple months.”

Let’s see what happens…